Mark Obrenovich, Rudolf Flückiger, Lorraine Sykes and Curtis DonskeyPages 127-134 (8)
We know that within the complex mammalian gut is any number of metabolic biomes. The gut has been sometimes called the “second brain” within the “gut-brain axis”. A more informative term would be the gut-brain metabolic interactome, which is coined here to underscore the relationship between the digestive system and cognitive function or dysfunction as the case may be. Co-metabolism between the host and the intestinal microbiota is essential for life’s processes. How diet, lifestyle, antibiotics and other factors shape the gut microbiome constitutes a rapidly growing area of research. Conversely, the gut microbiome also affects mammalian systems. Metabolites of the gut-brain axis are potential targets for treatment and drug design since the interaction or biochemical interplay results in net metabolite production or end-products with either positive or negative effects on human health. This review explores the gut-brain metabolic interactome, with particular emphasis on drug design and treatment strategies and how commensal bacteria or their disruption lead to dysbiosis and the effect this has on neurochemistry. Increasing data indicate that the intestinal microbiome can affect neurobiology, from mental and even behavioral health to memory, depression, mood, anxiety, obesity, cravings and even the creation and maintenance of the blood brain barrier.
Antibiotics, Microbiota, Neurotransmitters, Gut Brain axis, Metabolomics, Fecal Material Transplant, Signaling, Metabolic Crosstalk, Trimethylamine, Trimethylamine N-Oxide, Carnitine.
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service (PALMS), Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.